LongestPaths.jl

Julia package for finding the longest simple path in a graph.
Author GunnarFarneback
Popularity
6 Stars
Updated Last
9 Months Ago
Started In
December 2018

LongestPaths.jl

LongestPaths is a Julia package dedicated to finding long simple paths or cycles, i.e. no repeated vertex, in a graph, as well as upper bounds on the maximum length.

The longest path problem is NP-hard, so the time needed to find the solution grows quickly with the size of the graph, unless it has some advantageous structure.

At this time two search functions are provided:

find_longest_path(graph, first_vertex = 1, last_vertex = 0; kwargs)

Find the longest simple path in a directed LightGraphs graph, starting with first_vertex and ending in last_vertex. If last_vertex is 0 the path may end anywhere. If time limits or other restrictions prevent finding an optimal path, an upper bound on the maximum length is returned together with the longest path found.

find_longest_cycle(graph, first_vertex = 0; kwargs)

Find the longest simple cycle in a directed LightGraphs graph, which includes first_vertex. If first_vertex is 0 the cycle may be anywhere. If time limits or other restrictions prevent finding an optimal cycle, an upper bound on the maximum length is returned together with the longest cycle found.

Adding LongestPaths

LongestPaths is a registered Julia package.

In Julia pkg mode (press ]):

pkg> add LongestPaths

Usage Example

julia> using LongestPaths, LightGraphs

julia> g = erdos_renyi(500, 0.005, is_directed=true, seed=13)
{500, 1286} directed simple Int64 graph

julia> find_longest_path(g)
  1     1 [267 352] 0 0 Optimal 352.0 352.0
  2     2 [267 352] 0 24 Optimal 352.0 352.0
  3     2 [267 352] 0 112 Optimal 352.0 352.0
  4     2 [338 352] 0 132 Optimal 352.0 352.0
  5     2 [338 352] 0 146 Optimal 352.0 352.0
  6     3 [352 352] 0 159 Optimal 352.0 352.0
Longest path with bounds [352, 352] and a recorded path of length 352.

For large problems you most likely want to add some restriction on how long the search can go on. See the doc string.

Weighted Longest Paths

Edge-weighted longest path problems are supported. Example, continued from above:

julia> w = Dict((v1, v2) => mod1(v1 + v2, 2) for (v1, v2) in Tuple.(edges(g)));

julia> find_longest_path(g, weights = w)
  1     0 [349.0 539.0] 0.0 0 Optimal 539.0 539.0
  2     0 [413.0 539.0] 0.0 54 Optimal 539.0 539.0
  3     0 [457.0 539.0] 0.0 128 Optimal 539.0 539.0
  4     0 [539.0 539.0] 0.0 139 Optimal 539.0 539.0
Longest path with bounds [539.0, 539.0] and a recorded path of weight 539.

Theory

Although developed independently, the main ideas used here coincide with

Leonardo Taccari. Integer programming formulations for the elementary shortest path problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 252(1):122–130, 2016.

See the reference for a rigid motivation and further references to similar approaches for related problems such as the travelling salesman problem.

In short, the problem is posed as an Integer Linear Program with binary variables. There is one variable for each edge with 1 meaning that the edge is included in the path. The constraints are, with the convention that sum of edges means the sum of the corresponding variables:

  • The sum of incoming edges to the first vertex is 0.

  • The sum of incoming edges to all other vertices must be between 0 and 1.

  • The sum of outgoing edges from a vertex minus the sum of the incoming edges is between 0 and 1 for the first vertex.

  • The sum of outgoing edges from a vertex minus the sum of the incoming edges is between -1 and 0 for all other vertices

(These constraints are for searching for a path starting in a specified vertex and ending anywhere. The other search variants have slightly different constraints, documented in the source code.)

The objective function is the sum of all edge variables, which is maximized.

Clearly all simple paths starting from the first vertex are feasible solutions to this problem, so any upper bound of the optimization problem is an upper bound to the length of the simple paths. Moreover, any upper bound to the LP relaxation of the problem (integer constraints ignored) is also an upper bound of the path length.

Unfortunately these constraints are not sufficient to only allow simple paths. Additional feasible solutions consist of one path complemented with an arbitrary number of cycles. Cycles can be eliminated by adding constraints, e.g. that the sum of the edge variables in the cycle must be at most n - 1 for a cycle of length n. If such a constraint is added for every possible cycle in the graph, the optimization would only have the simple paths as feasible solutions and the optimal solution would give a maximum length path. However, the number of possible cycles grows very quickly with the graph size and the number of constraints would soon become intractable. Instead we only add constraints for the cycles that we actually find in the solutions and then iterate, with the hope of reaching an optimal path long before every cycle has been added to the constraints.

Note: instead of limiting the cycle length, the "generalized cutset inequalities" from Taccari are a more efficient way to constrain cycles, in particular since they have a greater effect on the LP relaxation. That is also the default in the longest_path function.

Future Plans

  • Add more tests.

  • Add benchmarks.

  • Convert from MathProgBase to MathOptInterface.

  • Generalize to other solvers than Cbc. This should be more or less straightforward, but is at the moment hindered by an absence of licenses for commercial solvers like Gurobi or CPLEX.

  • Add search methods for finding long paths that don't involve solving optimization problems. These are already developed but need to be upgraded to Julia 1.0, integrated with LightGraphs, and polished.

  • General polishing of the code.

Used By Packages

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