Property especification for thermodynamic models
Author longemen3000
22 Stars
Updated Last
1 Year Ago
Started In
June 2020


Build Status Build Status Codecov Stable Dev

ThermoState.jl is a basic block for interfacing and specifying thermodynamic models. this package proposes and provides tools to create a common property interface of the form:



This package proposes the following conventions for naming properties:

  • mol_$PROPERTY is a property of units U/mol (molar volume, molar Helmholtz energy, molar enthalpy, etc)

  • mass_$PROPERTY is a property of units U/kg.

  • total_$PROPERTY is a property of units U. (total Helmholtz energy has joule units)

The following properties are accepted by an state and have an accesor function:

Property Units Accessor function Keywords for spec and state
Molar volume m3/mol mol_volume v, mol_v
Mass volume m3/kg mass_volume mass_v
Total volume m3 total_volume total_v, V
Molar density mol/m3 mol_density ρ, mol_ρ, rho, mol_rho
Mass density mol/kg mass_density mass_ρ, mass_rho
Temperature K temperature t, T
Pressure Pa pressure p, P
Molar enthalpy J/mol mol_enthalpy h, mol_h
Mass enthalpy J/kg mass_enthalpy mass_h
Total enthalpy J total_enthalpy total_h
Molar Gibbs J/mol mol_gibbs g, mol_g
Mass Gibbs J/kg mass_gibbs mass_g
Total Gibbs J total_gibbs total_g
Molar Helmholtz J/mol mol_helmholtz a, mol_a
Mass Helmholtz J/kg mass_helmholtz mass_a
Total Helmholtz J total_helmholtz total_a
Molar Internal Energy J/mol mol_internal_energy a, mol_a
Mass Internal Energy J/kg mass_internal_energy mass_a
Total Internal Energy J total_internal_energy total_a
Molar entropy J/(mol K) mol_entropy s, mol_s
Mass entropy J/(kg K) mass_entropy mass_s
Total entropy J/K total_entropy total_s
Amount of Moles mol moles moles
Amount of Mass kg mass mass
Molar Fraction no units mol_fraction xn
Mass Fraction no units mass_fraction xm
Molar Numbers mol mol_number n
Mass Numbers kg mass_number m
Molar Vapor Fraction no units mol_vapor_fraction vfrac
Mass Vapor Fraction no units mass_vapor_fraction quality
Current Phase no units phase phase, sat
Aditional Options no units options options

You can view the keywords in the KW_TO_SPEC constant.

The Following functions aren't accepted as a keyword to state or spec, but are defined on the package:

Property Units Accessor function Notes
Molar Mass kg/mol molar_mass molecular weight ponderated by material amounts
Molar Cₚ J/(mol K) mol_cp no impl, for interop use
Mass Cₚ J/(kg K) mass_cp no impl, for interop use
Molar Cᵥ J/(mol K) mol_cv no impl, for interop use
Mass Cᵥ J/(kg K) mass_cv no impl, for interop use
Speed of sound m/s sound_speed no impl, for interop use

For defining property specifications, the package defines the AbstractSpec types and the Spec container. an individual specification can be defined by:

using Unitful, ThermoState
h0 = spec(mol_h="kg/mol")

You can create various specifications with the state function:

st = state(v=990u"m^3/mol",T=350u"K",mass=3u"mg")

And extract values for the use of property models:


Specification object (Spec)

A Spec is just a tagged value. it can be constructed by two ways:

  • type-value constructor:

     t0 = spec(Types.Temperature(),300.15)
     t0 = spec(Types.Temperature(),30u"°C") #normalized
     t0 = spec(Types.Temperature(),30u"°C",false) #not normalized
  • type-value constructor (using @spec_str macro):

     t0 = spec(spec"t",300.15)
     t0 = spec(spec"t",30u"°C") #normalized
     t0 = spec(spec"t",30u"°C",false) #not normalized

    by default, unitful quantities are unit stripped and normalized to SI units, you can use the argument normalize_units to change that default.

  • keyword constructor:

    t0 = spec(t= 300.15)
    t0 = spec(T= 30u"°C") 
    t0 = spec(T = 30u"°C",normalize_units= false) 

All keyword arguments are stored in the KW_TO_SPEC dict keys. The Main difference between the type-value constructor and the keyword constructor is that the first can be resolved at compile time, where as the second has a runtime cost.

The result of those operations is a Spec struct:

julia> t0 = spec(T = 30.0u"°C")     
spec(t = 303.15[K])

julia> typeof(t0)

julia> val_t0 = value(t0) #extracting value

julia> spec_t0 = specification(t0) #specification of t0 

an example of a enthalpy specification:

julia> h0 = spec(mol_h = 3000.0)
spec(mol_h = 3000.0[J mol^-1])

julia> specification(h0)

julia> typeof(h0)
Spec{ThermoState.Types.Enthalpy{ThermoState.Types.MOLAR},Float64} ##?

In this case, the specification type is a parametric singleton struct: Enthalpy{MOLAR}. the MOLAR parameter is known as a spec modifier , and is used for dispatch in unit transformations and conversions (from molar to mass units, for example).

There are two special cases with two parameters: volume amounts (molar, total and specific volume, mass and molar density) and material compound proportions (mass numbers, mol numbers, mass fractions and mol fractions). volume amounts are tagged with the specification VolumeAmount{<:SpecModifier,<:SpecModifier} and material compounds tagged with the specification MaterialCompounds{<:SpecModifier,<:SpecModifier}. lets see some examples:

julia> using ThermoState.Types #importing the spec types for shorter printing

julia> typeof(specification(spec(mol_v = 0.005)))

julia> typeof(spec"mol_v")

julia> typeof(specification(spec(mass_rho = 875.2)))

julia> typeof(specification(spec(xn = [0.5,0.5])))

julia> typeof(specification(spec(m = [40.2,35.3])))

There are two special types: PhaseTag (keyword = phase) and Options (keyword = options). the first is useful to signal an underlying model to calculate just one phase (for example, in cubic equations, the root calculation gives the vapor and liquid volumes). Options accepts a named tuple that can be passed to any underlying model to specify numerical options (choice of differentiation method, maximum iterations,etc).


A specification is not sufficient to define a system. The Gibbs' Phase Rule specifies that a system in equilibrium has F degrees of freedom, where F = NumberOfComponents - NumberOfPhases + 2 .

The ThermodynamicState struct is a collection of Specs. When creating this object, the Gibbs' Phase Rule is evaluated on the specification arguments to check its validity. lets see one example:

julia> a = state(t=300.0,ρ=5u"mol/m^3")
ThermodynamicState with 2 properties:
  Temperature : 300.0[K]
  Molar density : 5[mol m^-3]

In this case, neither a phase nor any amount of compounds was specified. In those cases, the function assumes when the system has one mol, one phase, and/or a single component.

Another way to build a ThermodynamicState struct is by directly passing Specs as arguments:

 h0 = spec(mol_h = 3000.0)
 t0 = spec(t=401.0)
 st = state(h0,t0)
julia>  st = state(h0,t0)
ThermodynamicState with 2 properties:
  Molar enthalpy : 3000.0[J mol^-1]
  Temperature : 401.0[K]

You can skip the check of the Gibbs' Phase Rule using the check = false keyword, or, in the case of building the state using keywords, decide to not normalize units via the normalize_units= false keyword.

Obtaining properties from a ThermodynamicState struct

As said in the Basics section, you can query properties from the created ThermodynamicState struct. the way of obtaining those properties is by calling a property function. The interface proposed by this package is the following:

prop = property(model::MyModel,state::ThermodynamicState,unit::Unitful.unit=[default],args...)

Dispatching on the model type, you can calculate properties from the specifications contained in state. This package exports one single model: FromState, that doesn't calculate (almost) anything, just checks if the selected property is in the argument, and if it is, it returns its numerical (unit stripped) value. By default, the units of the number returned correspond to SI units, you can obtain a number with appropiate units by passing a corresponding unit argument. the FromState model, given a corresponding molecular weight mw argument, can calculate derived properties, for example:

mw = 50
a = state(t=300.0,ρ=5.0u"mol/L")
v = mass_volume(FromSpecs(),a,u"cm^3/g",mw)

The mw argument can be, depending of the situation, a number of vector of number. if not units are provided, a default units of g/mol are assumed. this conversion can be done on any unit that accepts molar, total and mass specifications, mass and moles themselves, molar and mass fractions,and molar and mass numbers.

Variable ThermodynamicStates

Sometimes a more direct approach is needed when properties.For example, you may want to create a function that accepts only temperature to pass it to an ODE system or an optimization system. for this purpose, the Singleton VariableSpec is provided. if you pass it to a Spec or create a ThermodynamicState object, the resulting state or spec will be callable:

julia> a_t = state(t=VariableSpec(),ρ=5.0u"mol/L")
ThermodynamicState(x₁) with 2 properties:
  Temperature : x₁
  Molar density : 5000.0[mol m^-3]
julia> a_t(300.15)
ThermodynamicState with 2 properties:
  Temperature : 300.15[K]
  Molar density : 5000.0[mol m^-3]

up to 3 VariableSpec can be added to each ThermodynamicState. a spec can only have one VariableSpec

Its important to note that the functor created accepts the arguments in the same order as the arguments passed to the state function. for example, st = state(t=VariableSpec(),P=VariableSpec()) will return a functor of the form st(t,p) whereas st = state(P=VariableSpec(),t=VariableSpec()) will create a functor with reversed order: st(p,t)

Dispatching on the state type with state_type

Good. we now have a struct designed to store thermodynamic properties. now we can create functions that dispatch on a specific combination of thermodynamic specifications, using the function state_type(st::ThermodynamicState):

julia> st = state(t=373.15,ρ=5.0u"mol/L");state_type(st)
(VolumeAmount{MOLAR,DENSITY}(), Temperature(), SingleComponent())        

This tuple of thermodynamic specifications are an ordered representation of the specifications contained:

st1 = state(t=373.15,ρ=5.0u"mol/L")
st2 = state(ρ=5.0u"mol/m^3",t=373.15,normalize_units=false)
state_type(s1) === state_type(s2) #true

Some abstract tuple types are saved on ThermoState.QuickStates. the tuple types exported are:

  • SinglePT,MultiPT
  • SingleVT,MultiVT
  • SinglePV,MultiPV
  • SinglePS,MultiPS
  • SinglePH,MultiPH
  • SingleSatT,MultiSatT (Two phase equilibrium)
  • SingleSatP,MultiSatP
  • SingleΦT,MultiΦT (vapor fraction, general)
  • SingleΦP,MultiΦP
  • SingleΦmT,MultiΦmT (mass vapor fraction, or quality)
  • SingleΦmP,MultiΦmP
  • SingleΦnT,MultiΦnT(molar vapor fraction)
  • SingleΦnP,MultiΦnP
  • SingleT,MultiT (a state that has a temperature)

Exported utilities


Sometimes, Unitful quantities are needed. by default (and convention) all property accessors return a number without units, in SI system. You can automatically prefix the correct unit to the accessor function adding the @to_units macro at the start of the expression

st = state(t=1.0u"K",p=2.0u"Pa")
t0 = temperature(FromState(),st) #returns 1.0
t1 = @to_units temperature(FromState(),st) #returns 1.0 K
t1 = @to_units temperature(FromState(),st)


Calling spec(;key = value,normalize_units=true) is simple, but it has a runtime cost. on the other part, spec(sp::AbstractSpec,value,normalize_units::Bool=true) can be determined at compile time. A problem with this interface is that writing the correct type can be cumbersome, for example, for some molar numbers:

n0 = spec(MaterialCompounds{MOLAR,TOTAL_AMOUNT}(),[0.1,0.3]) #very long type declaration

The @spec_str helps in this situation, creating the AbstractSpec type corresponding to the input keyword:

n1 = spec(spec"n",[0.1,0.3]) #shorter
n0 == n1 #true

The statement spec(spec"n",[0.1,0.3]) can be defined at compile time.


On normal numbers, it is the identity, but on numbers or vectors of Unitful.Quantity,it converts the unit to an equivalent SI unit and strips the unit information.

x = 0.0u"°C"
normalize_units(x) #273.15


Converts an unit from the unit stored in from to the unit stored in to. when both units are equal, it justs returns val. if val itself is an unit, then it convert the from the unit in val to the unit in to.

convert_unit(u"Pa",u"kPa",1000.0) #1.0
convert_unit(u"Pa",u"kPa",1u"atm") #101.325


Returns the SI unit of a thermodynamic specification type or a function name corresponding to those types:

#from a function
default_units(mol_density) #u"mol/m^3"

#from a thermodynamic specification type
default_units(Pressure()) #u"Pa"

Implementing a model using the ThermoState interface

Using this package, we can implement a basic ideal gas model that only calculates the pressure, given a temperature and molar volume, using the relation pvₙ=Rt:

using ThermoState, Unitful, 
using ThermoState.QuickStates #provides SingleVT for dispatch on state_type
import ThermoState: pressure #import all functions to overload, if you have a custom property, this is not necessary.

import ThermoState: molecular_weight #you can use your own name in your files, but it is recommended to use this to better interop between packages.

struct MyIdealGas
molecular_weight(model::MyIdealGas) =

#your implementation of pressure, with v and t. 
#pass a state type to dispatch on the available properties.
function pressure_impl(mt::SingleVT,model::MyIdealGas,v,t)
    return 8.314*t/v

function pressure(model::MyIdealGas,st::ThermodynamicState,unit=u"Pa")
return pressure(state_type(st),model,st,unit)

function pressure(mt::SingleVT,model::MyIdealGas,st::ThermodynamicState,unit)
    v = mol_volume(FromState(),st,u"m^3/mol",mw)
    t = temperature(FromState(),st,u"K") 
    val = pressure_impl(mt,model,v,t)
    return convert_unit(u"Pa",unit,val)

a = state(mass = 3u"kg",total_v = 30u"m^3",t=30u"°C")
model = MyIdealGas(18.01)
p = pressure(model,a)

Using a variable state:

tx = state(mass = 3u"kg",total_v = 30u"m^3",t=var) #one free variable
p = pressure(model,tx(30u"°C"))
p_list = map(t-> pressure(model,tx(t)),273.0:373.0)

Here the actual function that does the work has the form $property_impl(mt,model,args...), that accepts positional arguments of the form indicated by the result obtained by state_type(st). in this example, it doesnt seem too useful, as there is only one posible implementation: SingleVT. However, this helps when there is more than one posible pair of input to the function. For example, with this dispatch, you can do this:

struct WaterModel end


#Enthalpy from  Pressure - Temperature 
function mol_enthalpy_impl(::SinglePT,::WaterModel,p,t)

#Enthalpy from  Volume - Temperature 
function mol_enthalpy_impl(::SingleVT,::WaterModel,v,t)

#Enthalpy from  Entropy - Temperature 
function mol_enthalpy_impl(::SingleST,::WaterModel,s,t)

#Enthalpy from  Pressure - Entropy 
function mol_enthalpy_impl(::SinglePS,::WaterModel,p,s)

#ThermoState interface, only needed once
function mol_enthalpy(model::WaterModel,st::ThermodynamicState,unit="J/mol")
  return mol_enthalpy(state_type(st),model,st,unit)

#dispatch on the apropiate implementation, extracting the args from st
function mol_enthalpy(mt::SingleVT,model::WaterModel,st::ThermodynamicState,unit)
    v = mol_volume(FromState(),st,u"m^3/mol",mw)
    t = temperature(FromState(),st,u"K") 
    val = mol_enthalpy(mt,model,v,t)
    return convert_unit(u"J/mol",unit,val)

You can also provide automatic conversion to mass an total units, defining the following functions:

function mass_enthalpy(model::WaterModel,st::ThermodynamicState,unit="J/kg")
  mol_h = mol_enthalpy(model,st) #we dont care about state_type, just the result
  #to obtain mass_h, we need to divide by kg/mol
  kg_per_mol = molar_mass(FromState(),st,u"kg/mol",molecular_weight(model)) #we can do this or overload molar_mass(WaterModel,st)

  mass_h = mol_h/kg_per_mol
  return convert_unit(u"J/kg",unit,mass_h)

function total_enthalpy(model::WaterModel,st::ThermodynamicState,unit="J")
  mol_h = mol_enthalpy(model,st) 
  #to obtain total_h, we need to divide by moles
  mol = moles(FromState(),st,u"mol",molecular_weight(model)) #we can do this or overload moles(WaterModel,st)
  total_h = mol_h*mol
  return convert_unit(u"J/kg",unit,total_h)

As seen here, this is an easy, but repetitive and boring task. Thankfully, julia metaprogramming helps a lot here. if you have a lot of properties, you can evaluate all those functions at once this @eval. This is an actual piece of code used on WaterIF97.jl (not published yet). the implementation functions where defined before hand, whereas the ThermoState interface is mostly defined in this @eval loop

for op in [:helmholtz, :gibbs, :internal_energy, :enthalpy,:cp,:cv,:volume,:entropy]
        mol_op_impl = Symbol(:mol_,op,:_impl)
        mass_op_impl = Symbol(:mass_,op,:_impl)
        total_op_impl = Symbol(:total_,op,:_impl)
        mol_op = Symbol(:mol_,op)
        mass_op = Symbol(:mass_,op)
        total_op = Symbol(:total_,op)
        if op == :volume
            _unit = u"m^3/kg"
            mol_unit = u"m^3/mol"
            total_unit = u"m^3"

        elseif op in (:cv,:cp,:entropy)
            _unit = u"J/(kg*K)"
            mol_unit = u"J/(mol*K)"
            total_unit = u"J/(K)"
            _unit = u"J/(kg)"
            mol_unit = u"J/(mol)"
            total_unit = u"J"
        @eval begin

            #dispatch basic mass impl to the correct region, P,T
            function $mass_op_impl(mt::SinglePT,model::IndustrialWater,p,t)
                id = region_id(mt,model,p,t)
                return $mass_op_impl(mt,IF97Region{id}(),p,t)

            function $mass_op(model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit=$_unit)
                return $mass_op(state_type(st),model,st,unit)
            # P T impl
            function $mass_op(mt::SinglePT,model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit)
                p = pressure(FromState(),st)
                t = temperature(FromState(),st)
                res = $mass_op_impl(mt,model,p,t)
                return convert_unit($_unit,unit,res)

            #mol op
            function $mol_op(model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit=$mol_unit)
                prod = molar_mass(FromState(),st,u"kg/mol",molecular_weight(model))
                res =  $mass_op(state_type(st),model,st,$_unit)*prod
                return convert_unit($mol_unit,unit,res)

        if !(op in (:cv,:cp))
            #total ops, cv and cp dont have total operations
            @eval begin
                function $total_op(model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit=$total_unit)
                    prod = mass(FromState(),st,u"kg",molecular_weight(model))
                    res =  $mass_op(mt,model,st,unit)*prod
                    return convert_unit($total_unit,unit,res)

    if op != :enthalpy
        @eval begin
            #if not enthalpy, define PH impl
            function $mass_op_impl(mt::SinglePH,model::IndustrialWater,p,h)
                id = region_id(mt,model,p,h)
                return $mass_op_impl(mt,IF97Region{id}(),p,h)

            function $mass_op(mt::SinglePH,model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit)
                p = pressure(FromState(),st)
                h = mass_enthalpy(FromState(),st)
                res = $mass_op_impl(mt,model,p,h)
                return convert_unit($_unit,unit,res)

    if op != :entropy
        @eval begin
            #if not entropy, define PS impl
            function $mass_op_impl(mt::SinglePS,model::IndustrialWater,p,s)
                id = region_id(mt,model,p,h)
                t = temperature_impl(mt,IF97Region{id}(),p,s) #transform to SinglePT
                _mt =
                return $mass_op_impl(_mt,model,p,t)

            function $mass_op(mt::SinglePS,model::IndustrialWater,st::ThermodynamicState,unit)
                p = pressure(FromState(),st)
                s = mass_entropy(FromState(),st)
                res = $mass_op_impl(mt,model,p,s)
                return convert_unit($_unit,unit,res)

With this loop, we defined at 22 property accessor functions, in molar, mass an total units, with 3 implementations each (except enthalpy and entropy, with 2 implementations).

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