Binary Decision Diagrams package for Julia.
Author RenatoGeh
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2 Months Ago
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June 2020

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BinaryDecisionDiagrams.jl (BDD.jl)

BDD.jl is a Julia library for manipulating Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs).

It started as a partial port of pyddlib (see but now has many more features compared to the original package, such as

  • Iterating over all possible worlds;
  • Functions for easily constructing conjunctions and disjunctions;
  • BDD iterators and collection functions;
  • Full support for equivalent formulae as keys in a dictionary;
  • Shannon's decomposition;
  • Variable elimination (aka the forget operation);
  • Marginalization of a formula given some binary operator (generalization of forget);
  • Functions for identifying a BDD's scope and verifying a variable's membership;
  • Extracting conjunctions as bit arrays;
  • Constructors for cardinality constraint formulae (at least, at most and exactly);
  • Thread safe;
  • I/O functions for saving and loading BDDs;
  • Convert BDDs to CNF and DNF file formats;
  • Print BDD as a CNF or DNF.

The following are references used in this package and the original library.

[1] Bryant, Randal E. Graph-based algorithms for boolean function manipulation. Computers, IEEE Transactions on 100, no. 8 (1986): 677-691.

[2] Brace, Karl S., Richard L. Rudell, and Randal E. Bryant. Efficient implementation of a BDD package. In Proceedings of the 27th ACM/IEEE design automation conference, pp. 40-45. ACM, 1991.


It is required to have Julia installed.

This package is available on the Julia General Registries.

  $ julia -e 'using Pkg; Pkg.add("BinaryDecisionDiagrams")'

Alternatively, you may add this repository manualy and receive nightly updates.

  $ julia -e 'using Pkg; Pkg.add("")'


  $ julia -e 'using Pkg; Pkg.test("BinaryDecisionDiagrams")'


You create BDDs from constants and variables by composing boolean functions with logical operations AND (∧), OR (∨), XOR (⊻) and negation (¬).

See test/runtests.jl for a comprehensive collection of examples on each feature. It is highly recommended you check the docs, since the snippet below does not cover all features.

  using BinaryDecisionDiagrams

  println("== True ==")
  println("== False ==")

  x1 = variable(1)
  x2 = variable(2)
  x3 = variable(3)
  println("=== x1 ===")

  println("=== ¬x1 ===")

  println("=== x1 ∧ x2 ===")
  println(x1 ∧ x2)

  println("=== x1 ∨ x2 ===")
  println(x1 ∨ x2)

  println("=== x1 ⊻ x2 ===")
  println(x1  x2)

  bdd1 = ¬x1 ∨ (x2 ∧ ¬x3)
  if bdd1 ∧ ⊤ == bdd1
    println("True is the neutral element for AND operation")

  bdd2 = ¬(¬x2) ∧ ¬(x1 ∨ x3)
  if bdd2 ∨ zero == bdd2
    println("False is the neutral element for OR operation")

  bdd3 = x1 ∧ ¬x1
  if is_⊥(bdd3)
    println("You can check contradiction with is_⊥")

  bdd4 = x1 ∨ ¬x1
  if is_⊤(bdd4):
    println("You can check tautology with is_⊤")

  bdd5 = ¬(x1 ∨ ¬(x2 ∧ ¬x3))
  if is_⊥(bdd5  bdd5)
    println("You can check equivalence with XOR")

  if (x1 ∧ x2) == (x2 ∧ x1)
    println("Commutative law works for boolean functions")

  if x1 ∧ (x2 ∧ x3) == (x1 ∧ x2) ∧ x3
    println("Associative law works for boolean functions")

  if (x1 ∧ (x2 ∨ x3)) == ((x1 ∧ x2) ∨ (x1 ∧ x3))
    println("Distributivity law works: AND distributes over OR")

  if (x1 ∨ (x2 ∧ x3)) == ((x1 ∨ x2) ∧ (x1 ∨ x3))
    println("Distributivity law works: OR distributes over AND")

  bdd6 = ¬(x1 ∧ ¬(¬x2 ∨ x3))
  valuation1 = Dict{Int, Bool}(1 => true, 2 => true, 3 => false)

  if is_⊥(bdd6|valuation1)
    println("You can evaluate the function either with | or function restrict!")

  valuation2 = Dict{Int, Bool}(1 => True)
  if bdd6|valuation2 == ¬x2 ∨ x3:
    println("You can also partially evaluate the function with restrict")


See for the original license. A copy is added to this repository.