## IncrementalSVD.jl

Incrementally compute an approximate truncated singular value decomposition
Popularity
8 Stars
Updated Last
4 Months Ago
Started In
September 2018

# IncrementalSVD

IncrementalSVD provides incremental (updating) singular value decomposition. This allows you to update an existing SVD with new columns, and even implement online SVD with streaming data.

## All-at-once usage

For reasons that will be described below, if you want a truncated SVD and your matrix is small enough to fit in memory, you're better off using TSVD. However, IncrementalSVD can do it too:

julia> using IncrementalSVD, LinearAlgebra

julia> X = randn(5, 12);

julia> U, s = isvd(X, 4);    # get a rank-4 truncated SVD

julia> Vt = Diagonal(s) \ (U' * X);

Note that Vt is not returned by isvd; for reasons described below we compute it afterwards.

isvd uses incremental updating, which is lossy to an extent that depends on the distribution of singular values. For comparison:

julia> using TSVD

julia> U2, s2, V2 = tsvd(X, 4);

julia> norm(X - U*Diagonal(s)*Vt)
1.9647749407433712

julia> norm(X - U2*Diagonal(s2)*V2')
1.9177860422120783

In this particular case, the rank-4 absolute error with TSVD is a few percent better than with IncrementalSVD. The error of incremental SVD comes from the fact that it works on chunks, and there is a truncation step after each chunk that discards information; see Brand 2006 Eq 5 for more insight.

However, the real use-case for IncrementalSVD is in computing incremental updates or handling cases where X is too large to fit in memory all at once, and for such applications it handily beats alternatives like random projection + power iteration (e.g., rsvd from RandomizedLinAlg.jl).

Here's a demo in which we process X in chunks of 4 columns:

julia> using LinearAlgebra

julia> using IncrementalSVD: IncrementalSVD as ISVD, isvd    # use a shorthand name for the package

julia> X = randn(5, 12);

julia> U, s = ISVD.update!(nothing, nothing, X[:,1:4]);   # use nothing or zeros(T, m, r), zeros(T, r) to initialize

julia> ISVD.update!(U, s, X[:, 5:8]);

julia> ISVD.update!(U, s, X[:, 9:12]);

julia> s
4-element Vector{Float64}:
4.351123559463465
4.18050301615471
3.662876466035874
2.923979120208828

julia> F = svd(X);

julia> F.S
5-element Vector{Float64}:
4.351167907836934
4.182452959982528
3.669488216333535
2.9398639871271564
1.7956053622541457

isvd is just a thin wrapper over this basic iterative update.

## Reducing error

The most straightforward way to reduce error is to retain more components than you actually need. To estimate this error and how it depends on the number of extra components and the characteristics of the input matrix, in this demo we'll use covariance matrices where eigenvalue $\lambda_{k+1} = \beta \lambda_k$ for a constant $0 \le \beta \le 1$. Using this covariance matrix, we generate 1000 samples in a 100-dimensional space, and compare the accuracy of isvd vs svd for 5 retained components. Without any extra components, the error for $\beta=1$ is approximately 1.8% and drops below 0.1% for $\beta \approx 0.78$. If we instead compute isvd with twice as many components (10) as we expect to keep (5), the error for $\beta=1$ is 1.2% and drops below 0.1% for $\beta \approx 0.93$. (For comparison, rsvd from RandomizedLinAlg.jl with no extra components has an error of 11% at $\beta=1$ and stayed above 5% for all tested $\beta$; with twice as many components the error was 4.4% at $\beta=1$ and did not drop below 0.1% until $\beta = 0.35$.) The relative error as a function of both $\beta$ and the number of "extra" components retained can be shown as a heatmap:

(A fraction 2.0 of extra components means that if we're keeping 5 components, we compute with 2.0*5=10 extra components, meaning isvd is called with 15 components. Only the top 5 are retained for the error calculation.) In the figure above, isvd is shown on the left and rsvd on the right; isvd wins by a very large margin.

Full details can be found in the analysis script.

You can reduce the amount of memory allocated with each update by supplying a cache for intermediate results. See ?IncrementalSVD.Cache.

IncrementalSVD performs NaN-imputation. While in normal usage it doesn't modify values of X in-place, see ?IncrementalSVD.impute_nans.

## On-the-fly V

Why doesn't isvd return V? This is because X is processed in chunks, and both U and s get updated with each chunk; if we computed V "on-the-fly", the early rows of V would be computed from an early approximation of U and s, and thus inconsistent with later rows. The error that comes from not using a fully "trained" U and s can be very large.

In online applications, a good strategy might be to "train" U and s with enough samples, and then start computing V once trained (no longer updating U and s).

But for online applications where you can't afford to throw away anything---even at the cost of large errors in the early columns of Vt---here's how you can do it:

function isvd_with_Vt(X::AbstractMatrix{<:Real}, nc)
Base.require_one_based_indexing(X)
T = float(eltype(X))
U = s = nothing
Vt = zeros(T, nc, size(X, 2))
cache = IncrementalSVD.Cache{T}(size(X,1), nc, nc)
for j = 1:nc:size(X,2)
Xchunk = @view(X[:,j:min(j+nc-1,end)])
U, s = IncrementalSVD.update!(U, s, Xchunk, size(Xchunk, 2) == nc ? cache : nothing)
Vt[:,j:min(j+nc-1,end)] = Diagonal(s) \ (U' * Xchunk)
end
return U, s, Vt
end

This is just a minor extension of the source-code for isvd. Again, this is not recommended.

## References

The main reference is

Brand, M. "Fast low-rank modifications of the thin singular value decomposition." Linear algebra and its applications 415.1 (2006): 20-30.

NaN-imputation is described in

Brand, M. "Incremental singular value decomposition of uncertain data with missing values." Computer Vision—ECCV 2002. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002. 707-720.