Julia bindings for the Enzyme automatic differentiator
Author wsmoses
95 Stars
Updated Last
1 Year Ago
Started In
September 2019

The Enzyme High-Performance Automatic Differentiator of LLVM

This is a package containing the Julia bindings for Enzyme. This is very much a work in progress and bug reports/discussion is greatly appreciated!

Enzyme is a plugin that performs automatic differentiation (AD) of statically analyzable LLVM. It is highly-efficient and its ability perform AD on optimized code allows Enzyme to meet or exceed the performance of state-of-the-art AD tools.

Enzyme.jl can be installed in the usual way Julia packages are installed

] add Enzyme

Enzyme.jl can be used by calling autodiff on a function to be differentiated as shown below:

using Enzyme, Test

f1(x) = x*x
@test autodiff(f1, Active(1.0))  2.0

More information on installing and using Enzyme can be found on our website: https://enzyme.mit.edu.

To get involved or if you have questions, please join our mailing list.

If using this code in an academic setting, please cite the following paper to appear in NeurIPS 2020

title = {Instead of Rewriting Foreign Code for Machine Learning, Automatically Synthesize Fast Gradients},
author = {Moses, William S. and Churavy, Valentin},
booktitle = {Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 33},
year = {2020},
note = {To appear in},

Development of Enzyme and Enzyme.jl together

Normally Enzyme.jl downloads and install Enzyme for the user automatically since Enzyme needs to be built against Julia bundeled LLVM. In case that you are making updates to Enzyme and want to test them against Enzyme.jl the instructions below should help you get started.

Start Julia in your development copy of Enzyme.jl

~/s/Enzyme (master)> julia --project=.

Then create a development copy of Enzyme_jll and activate it within.

julia> using Enzyme_jll
julia> Enzyme_jll.dev_jll()
[ Info: Enzyme_jll dev'ed out to ${JULIA_PKG_DEVDIR}/Enzyme_jll with pre-populated override directory
(Enzyme) pkg> dev Enzyme_jll
Path `${JULIA_PKG_DEVDIR}/Enzyme_jll` exists and looks like the correct package. Using existing path.

After restarting Julia:

julia> Enzyme_jll.dev_jll()
julia> Enzyme_jll.libEnzyme_path

On your machine ${JULIA_PKG_DEVDIR} most likely corresponds to ~/.julia/dev. Now we can inspect "${JULIA_PKG_DEVDIR}/Enzyme_jll/override/lib and see that there is a copy of LLVMEnzyme-9.so, which we can replace with a symbolic link or a copy of a version of Enzyme.

Building Enzyme against Julia's LLVM.

Depending on how you installed Julia the LLVM Julia is using will be different.

  1. Download from julialang.org (Recommended)
  2. Manual build on your machine
  3. Uses a pre-built Julia from your system vendor (Not recommended)

To check what LLVM Julia is using use:

julia> Base.libllvm_version_string

If the LLVM version ends in a jl you a likely using the private LLVM.

In your source checkout of Enzyme:

mkdir build-jl
cd build-jl

Prebuilt binary from julialang.org

LLVM_MAJOR_VER=`julia -e "print(Base.libllvm_version.major)"`
julia -e "using Pkg; pkg\"add LLVM_full_jll@${LLVM_MAJOR_VER}\""
LLVM_DIR=`julia -e "using LLVM_full_jll; print(LLVM_full_jll.artifact_dir)"`

Manual build of Julia

cmake ../enzyme/ -G Ninja -DENZYME_EXTERNAL_SHARED_LIB=ON -DLLVM_DIR=${PATH_TO_BUILDDIR_OF_JULIA}/usr/lib/cmake/llvm/

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