Mixed-effects models in Julia
|Documentation||Citation||Build Status||Code Coverage|
This package defines linear mixed models (
LinearMixedModel) and generalized linear mixed models (
GeneralizedLinearMixedModel). Users can use the abstraction for statistical model API to build, fit (
fit!), and query the fitted models.
A mixed-effects model is a statistical model for a response variable as a function of one or more covariates.
For a categorical covariate the coefficients associated with the levels of the covariate are sometimes called effects, as in "the effect of using Treatment 1 versus the placebo".
If the potential levels of the covariate are fixed and reproducible, e.g. the levels for
Sex could be
"M", they are modeled with fixed-effects parameters.
If the levels constitute a sample from a population, e.g. the
Subject or the
Item at a particular observation, they are modeled as random effects.
A mixed-effects model contains both fixed-effects and random-effects terms.
With fixed-effects it is the coefficients themselves or combinations of coefficients that are of interest. For random effects it is the variability of the effects over the population that is of interest.
In this package random effects are modeled as independent samples from a multivariate Gaussian distribution of the form 𝓑 ~ 𝓝(0, 𝚺). For the response vector, 𝐲, only the mean of conditional distribution, 𝓨|𝓑 = 𝐛 depends on 𝐛 and it does so through a linear predictor expression, 𝛈 = 𝐗𝛃 + 𝐙𝐛, where 𝛃 is the fixed-effects coefficient vector and 𝐗 and 𝐙 are model matrices of the appropriate sizes,
LinearMixedModel the conditional mean, 𝛍 = 𝔼[𝓨|𝓑 = 𝐛], is the linear predictor, 𝛈, and the conditional distribution is multivariate Gaussian, (𝓨|𝓑 = 𝐛) ~ 𝓝(𝛍, σ²𝐈).
GeneralizedLinearMixedModel, the conditional mean, 𝔼[𝓨|𝓑 = 𝐛], is related to the linear predictor via a link function.
Typical distribution forms are Bernoulli for binary data or Poisson for count data.
Currently Supported Platforms
Version 2.0.0 contains some user-visible changes and many changes in the underlying code.
The user-visible changes include:
Update formula specification to
StatsModels v"0.6.2", allowing for function calls within the fixed-effects terms and for interaction terms on the left-hand side of a random-effects term.
Use of properties in a model in addition to extractor functions. For example, to obtain the covariance parameter, $\theta$, from a model, the recommended approach now is to access the
θproperty, as in
m.θ, instead of the extractor
bootstrapis now named
parametricbootstrapto avoid conflict with a similar name in the
Bootstrappackage. The bootstrap sample is returned as a
fitmethod for the abstract type
MixedModelhas been added. It is called as
julia> using Tables, MixedModels julia> Dyestuff = columntable((batch = string.(repeat('A':'F', inner=5)), yield = [1545, 1440, 1440, 1520, 1580, 1540, 1555, 1490, 1560, 1495, 1595, 1550, 1605, 1510, 1560, 1445, 1440, 1595, 1465, 1545, 1595, 1630, 1515, 1635, 1625, 1520, 1455, 1450, 1480, 1445])); julia> m1 = fit(MixedModel, @formula(yield ~ 1 + (1|batch)), Dyestuff) Linear mixed model fit by maximum likelihood yield ~ 1 + (1 | batch) logLik -2 logLik AIC BIC -163.66353 327.32706 333.32706 337.53065 Variance components: Column Variance Std.Dev. batch (Intercept) 1388.3334 37.260347 Residual 2451.2500 49.510100 Number of obs: 30; levels of grouping factors: 6 Fixed-effects parameters: ────────────────────────────────────────────────── Estimate Std.Error z value P(>|z|) ────────────────────────────────────────────────── (Intercept) 1527.5 17.6946 86.326 <1e-99 ──────────────────────────────────────────────────
The development of this package was supported by the Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Bielefeld (ZiF)/Cooperation Group "Statistical models for psychological and linguistic data".