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It is often convenient to unpack some or all of the fields of a type, and pack, in the case of mutable datatypes (for immutables use Setfield.jl). This is often the case when a struct is passed into a function.

The @unpack and @pack! macros work to unpack types, modules, and dictionaries (and can be customized for other types too, see next section).

using UnPack

mutable struct Para

function f!(var, pa::Para)
    @unpack a, b = pa # equivalent to: a,b = pa.a,pa.b
    out = var + a + b
    b = 77
    @pack! pa = b # equivalent to: pa.b = b
    return out, pa

out, pa = f!(7, Para(1,2)) # -> 10.0, Para(1.0, 77)

Example with a dictionary:

d = Dict{Symbol,Any}(:a=>5.0, :b=>2, :c=>"Hi!")
@unpack a, c = d
a == 5.0 #true
c == "Hi!" #true

d = Dict{String,Any}()
@pack! d = a, c
d # -> Dict{String,Any}("a"=>5.0,"c"=>"Hi!")

Customization of @unpack and @pack!

What happens during the (un-)packing of a particular datatype is determined by the functions UnPack.unpack and UnPack.pack!.

The UnPack.unpack function is invoked to unpack one entity of some DataType and has signature:

unpack(dt::Any, ::Val{property}) -> value of property

Note that unpack (and pack!) works with Base.getproperty. By default this means that all the fields of a type are unpacked but if getproperty is overloaded, then it will unpack accordingly.

Three method definitions are included in the package to unpack a composite type/module/NamedTuple, or a dictionary with Symbol or string keys:

@inline unpack(x, ::Val{f}) where {f} = getproperty(x, f)
@inline unpack(x::AbstractDict{Symbol}, ::Val{k}) where {k} = x[k]
@inline unpack(x::AbstractDict{<:AbstractString}, ::Val{k}) where {k} = x[string(k)]

The UnPack.pack! function is invoked to pack one entity into some DataType and has signature:

pack!(dt::Any, ::Val{field}, value) -> value

Three definitions are included in the package to pack into a mutable composite type or into a dictionary with Symbol or string keys:

@inline pack!(x, ::Val{f}, val) where {f} = setproperty!(x, f, val)
@inline pack!(x::AbstractDict{Symbol}, ::Val{k}, val) where {k} = x[k]=val
@inline pack!(x::AbstractDict{<:AbstractString}, ::Val{k}, val) where {k} = x[string(k)]=val

More methods can be added to unpack and pack! to allow for specialized unpacking/packing of datatypes. Here is a MWE of customizing unpack, so that it multiplies the values by 2:

using UnPack
struct Foo
p = Foo(1, 2)
@unpack a, b = p
a, b # gives (1, 2)

# Now we specialize unpack for our custom type, `Foo`
@inline UnPack.unpack(x::Foo, ::Val{f}) where {f} = 2 * getproperty(x, f)
@unpack a, b = p
a, b # now gives (2, 4)


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