The plan is for `LoopVectorization.jl`

to be maintained through the SciML Small Grants program.
If you would like to see an issue fixed, or support extended to another Julia patch release, please consider:

- Donating to the SciML Small Grants program, with a note on the purpose of your donation.
- Create (a) PR(s) fixing the issue yourself. Apply for the small grant program first to claim the grant. Note that the small grants program is not a mentorship program; you would be expected to complete the tasks without guidance from maintainers, past or present.

Note that `LoopVectorization.jl`

currently has deprecation warnings on Julia's 1.12 branch, causing test failures whenever `dep-warn=error`

.

```
using Pkg
Pkg.add("LoopVectorization")
```

LoopVectorization is supported on Julia 1.1 and later. It is tested on Julia 1.5 and nightly.

Misusing LoopVectorization can have serious consequences. Like `@inbounds`

, misusing it can lead to segfaults and memory corruption.
We expect that any time you use the `@turbo`

macro with a given block of code that you:

- Are not indexing an array out of bounds.
`@turbo`

does not perform any bounds checking. - Are not iterating over an empty collection. Iterating over an empty loop such as
`for i ∈ eachindex(Float64[])`

is undefined behavior, and will likely result in the out of bounds memory accesses. Ensure that loops behave correctly. - Are not relying on a specific execution order.
`@turbo`

can and will re-order operations and loops inside its scope, so the correctness cannot depend on a particular order. You cannot implement`cumsum`

with`@turbo`

. - Are not using multiple loops at the same level in nested loops.

This library provides the `@turbo`

macro, which may be used to prefix a `for`

loop or broadcast statement.
It then tries to vectorize the loop to improve runtime performance.

The macro assumes that loop iterations can be reordered. It also currently supports simple nested loops, where loop bounds of inner loops are constant across iterations of the outer loop, and only a single loop at each level of loop nest. These limitations should be removed in a future version.

Please see the documentation for benchmarks versus base Julia, Clang, icc, ifort, gfortran, and Eigen. If you believe any code or compiler flags can be improved, would like to submit your own benchmarks, or have Julia code using LoopVectorization that you would like to be tested for performance regressions on a semi-regular basis, please feel free to file an issue or PR with the code sample.

LLVM/Julia by default generate essentially optimal code for a primary vectorized part of this loop. In many cases -- such as the dot product -- this vectorized part of the loop computes 4*SIMD-vector-width iterations at a time.
On the CPU I'm running these benchmarks on with `Float64`

data, the SIMD-vector-width is 8, meaning it will compute 32 iterations at a time.
However, LLVM is very slow at handling the tails, `length(iterations) % 32`

. For this reason, in benchmark plots you can see performance drop as the size of the remainder increases.

For simple loops like a dot product, LoopVectorization.jl's most important optimization is to handle these tails more efficiently:

```
julia> using LoopVectorization, BenchmarkTools
julia> function mydot(a, b)
s = 0.0
@inbounds @simd for i ∈ eachindex(a,b)
s += a[i]*b[i]
end
s
end
mydot (generic function with 1 method)
julia> function mydotavx(a, b)
s = 0.0
@turbo for i ∈ eachindex(a,b)
s += a[i]*b[i]
end
s
end
mydotavx (generic function with 1 method)
julia> a = rand(256); b = rand(256);
julia> @btime mydot($a, $b)
12.220 ns (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
62.67140864639772
julia> @btime mydotavx($a, $b) # performance is similar
12.104 ns (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
62.67140864639772
julia> a = rand(255); b = rand(255);
julia> @btime mydot($a, $b) # with loops shorter by 1, the remainder is now 32, and it is slow
36.530 ns (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
61.25056244423578
julia> @btime mydotavx($a, $b) # performance remains mostly unchanged.
12.226 ns (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
61.250562444235776
```

We can also vectorize fancier loops. A likely familiar example to dive into:

```
julia> function mygemm!(C, A, B)
@inbounds @fastmath for m ∈ axes(A,1), n ∈ axes(B,2)
Cmn = zero(eltype(C))
for k ∈ axes(A,2)
Cmn += A[m,k] * B[k,n]
end
C[m,n] = Cmn
end
end
mygemm! (generic function with 1 method)
julia> function mygemmavx!(C, A, B)
@turbo for m ∈ axes(A,1), n ∈ axes(B,2)
Cmn = zero(eltype(C))
for k ∈ axes(A,2)
Cmn += A[m,k] * B[k,n]
end
C[m,n] = Cmn
end
end
mygemmavx! (generic function with 1 method)
julia> M, K, N = 191, 189, 171;
julia> C1 = Matrix{Float64}(undef, M, N); A = randn(M, K); B = randn(K, N);
julia> C2 = similar(C1); C3 = similar(C1);
julia> @benchmark mygemmavx!($C1, $A, $B)
BenchmarkTools.Trial:
memory estimate: 0 bytes
allocs estimate: 0
--------------
minimum time: 111.722 μs (0.00% GC)
median time: 112.528 μs (0.00% GC)
mean time: 112.673 μs (0.00% GC)
maximum time: 189.400 μs (0.00% GC)
--------------
samples: 10000
evals/sample: 1
julia> @benchmark mygemm!($C2, $A, $B)
BenchmarkTools.Trial:
memory estimate: 0 bytes
allocs estimate: 0
--------------
minimum time: 4.891 ms (0.00% GC)
median time: 4.899 ms (0.00% GC)
mean time: 4.899 ms (0.00% GC)
maximum time: 5.049 ms (0.00% GC)
--------------
samples: 1021
evals/sample: 1
julia> using LinearAlgebra, Test
julia> @test all(C1 .≈ C2)
Test Passed
julia> BLAS.set_num_threads(1); BLAS.vendor()
:mkl
julia> @benchmark mul!($C3, $A, $B)
BenchmarkTools.Trial:
memory estimate: 0 bytes
allocs estimate: 0
--------------
minimum time: 117.221 μs (0.00% GC)
median time: 118.745 μs (0.00% GC)
mean time: 118.892 μs (0.00% GC)
maximum time: 193.826 μs (0.00% GC)
--------------
samples: 10000
evals/sample: 1
julia> @test all(C1 .≈ C3)
Test Passed
julia> 2e-9M*K*N ./ (111.722e-6, 4.891e-3, 117.221e-6)
(110.50516460500171, 2.524199141279902, 105.32121377568868)
```

It can produce a good macro kernel. An implementation of matrix multiplication able to handle large matrices would need to perform blocking and packing of arrays to prevent the operations from being memory bottle-necked. Some day, LoopVectorization may itself try to model the costs of memory movement in the L1 and L2 cache, and use these to generate loops around the macro kernel following the work of Low, et al. (2016).

But for now, you should view it as a tool for generating efficient computational kernels, leaving tasks of parallelization and cache efficiency to you.

Another example, a straightforward operation expressed well via broadcasting and `*ˡ`

(which is typed `*\^l`

), the lazy matrix multiplication operator:

```
julia> using LoopVectorization, LinearAlgebra, BenchmarkTools, Test; BLAS.set_num_threads(1)
julia> A = rand(5,77); B = rand(77, 51); C = rand(51,49); D = rand(49,51);
julia> X1 = view(A,1,:) .+ B * (C .+ D');
julia> X2 = @turbo view(A,1,:) .+ B .*ˡ (C .+ D');
julia> @test X1 ≈ X2
Test Passed
julia> buf1 = Matrix{Float64}(undef, size(C,1), size(C,2));
julia> buf2 = similar(X1);
julia> @btime $X1 .= view($A,1,:) .+ mul!($buf2, $B, ($buf1 .= $C .+ $D'));
9.188 μs (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
julia> @btime @turbo $X2 .= view($A,1,:) .+ $B .*ˡ ($C .+ $D');
6.751 μs (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
julia> @test X1 ≈ X2
Test Passed
julia> AmulBtest!(X1, B, C, D, view(A,1,:))
julia> AmulBtest2!(X2, B, C, D, view(A,1,:))
julia> @test X1 ≈ X2
Test Passed
```

The lazy matrix multiplication operator `*ˡ`

escapes broadcasts and fuses, making it easy to write code that avoids intermediates. However, I would recommend always checking if splitting the operation into pieces, or at least isolating the matrix multiplication, increases performance. That will often be the case, especially if the matrices are large, where a separate multiplication can leverage BLAS (and perhaps take advantage of threads).
This may improve as the optimizations within LoopVectorization improve.

Note that loops will be faster than broadcasting in general. This is because the behavior of broadcasts is determined by runtime information (i.e., dimensions other than the leading dimension of size `1`

will be broadcasted; it is not known which these will be at compile time).

```
julia> function AmulBtest!(C,A,Bk,Bn,d)
@turbo for m ∈ axes(A,1), n ∈ axes(Bk,2)
ΔCmn = zero(eltype(C))
for k ∈ axes(A,2)
ΔCmn += A[m,k] * (Bk[k,n] + Bn[n,k])
end
C[m,n] = ΔCmn + d[m]
end
end
AmulBtest! (generic function with 1 method)
julia> AmulBtest!(X2, B, C, D, view(A,1,:))
julia> @test X1 ≈ X2
Test Passed
julia> @benchmark AmulBtest!($X2, $B, $C, $D, view($A,1,:))
BenchmarkTools.Trial:
memory estimate: 0 bytes
allocs estimate: 0
--------------
minimum time: 5.793 μs (0.00% GC)
median time: 5.816 μs (0.00% GC)
mean time: 5.824 μs (0.00% GC)
maximum time: 14.234 μs (0.00% GC)
--------------
samples: 10000
evals/sample: 6
```

Note: `@turbo`

does not support passing of kwargs to function calls to which it is applied, e.g:

```
julia> @turbo round.(rand(10))
julia> @turbo round.(rand(10); digits = 3)
ERROR: TypeError: in typeassert, expected Expr, got a value of type GlobalRef
```

You can work around this by creating a anonymous function before applying `@turbo`

as follows:

```
struct KwargCall{F,T}
f::F
x::T
end
@inline (f::KwargCall)(args...) = f.f(args...; f.x...)
f = KwargCall(round, (digits = 3,));
@turbo f.(rand(10))
10-element Vector{Float64}:
0.763
⋮
0.851
```

The key to the `@turbo`

macro's performance gains is leveraging knowledge of exactly how data like `Float64`

s and `Int`

s are handled by a CPU. As such, it is not strightforward to generalize the `@turbo`

macro to work on arrays containing structs such as `Matrix{Complex{Float64}}`

. Instead, it is currently recommended that users wishing to apply `@turbo`

to arrays of structs use packages such as StructArrays.jl which transform an array where each element is a struct into a struct where each element is an array. Using StructArrays.jl, we can write a matrix multiply (gemm) kernel that works on matrices of `Complex{Float64}`

s and `Complex{Int}`

s:

```
using LoopVectorization, LinearAlgebra, StructArrays, BenchmarkTools, Test
BLAS.set_num_threads(1); @show BLAS.vendor()
const MatrixFInt64 = Union{Matrix{Float64}, Matrix{Int}}
function mul_avx!(C::MatrixFInt64, A::MatrixFInt64, B::MatrixFInt64)
@turbo for m ∈ 1:size(A,1), n ∈ 1:size(B,2)
Cmn = zero(eltype(C))
for k ∈ 1:size(A,2)
Cmn += A[m,k] * B[k,n]
end
C[m,n] = Cmn
end
end
function mul_add_avx!(C::MatrixFInt64, A::MatrixFInt64, B::MatrixFInt64, factor=1)
@turbo for m ∈ 1:size(A,1), n ∈ 1:size(B,2)
ΔCmn = zero(eltype(C))
for k ∈ 1:size(A,2)
ΔCmn += A[m,k] * B[k,n]
end
C[m,n] += factor * ΔCmn
end
end
const StructMatrixComplexFInt64 = Union{StructArray{ComplexF64,2}, StructArray{Complex{Int},2}}
function mul_avx!(C:: StructMatrixComplexFInt64, A::StructMatrixComplexFInt64, B::StructMatrixComplexFInt64)
mul_avx!( C.re, A.re, B.re) # C.re = A.re * B.re
mul_add_avx!(C.re, A.im, B.im, -1) # C.re = C.re - A.im * B.im
mul_avx!( C.im, A.re, B.im) # C.im = A.re * B.im
mul_add_avx!(C.im, A.im, B.re) # C.im = C.im + A.im * B.re
end
```

this `mul_avx!`

kernel can now accept `StructArray`

matrices of complex numbers and multiply them efficiently:

```
julia> M, K, N = 56, 57, 58
(56, 57, 58)
julia> A = StructArray(randn(ComplexF64, M, K));
julia> B = StructArray(randn(ComplexF64, K, N));
julia> C1 = StructArray(Matrix{ComplexF64}(undef, M, N));
julia> C2 = collect(similar(C1));
julia> @btime mul_avx!($C1, $A, $B)
13.525 μs (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
julia> @btime mul!( $C2, $(collect(A)), $(collect(B))); # collect turns the StructArray into a regular Array
14.003 μs (0 allocations: 0 bytes)
julia> @test C1 ≈ C2
Test Passed
```

Similar approaches can be taken to make kernels working with a variety of numeric struct types such as dual numbers, DoubleFloats, etc.

- Gaius.jl
- MaBLAS.jl
- Octavian.jl
- PaddedMatrices.jl
- RecursiveFactorization.jl
- SnpArrays.jl
- Tullio.jl
- DianoiaML.jl
- TropicalGEMM.jl
- Trixi.jl
- VectorizedStatistics.jl
- NaNStatistics.jl
- VectorizedReduction.jl
- DynamicExpressions.jl
- PySR and SymbolicRegression.jl
- Lux.jl and LuxLib.jl

If you're using LoopVectorization, please feel free to file a PR adding yours to the list!